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There are currently 8 known threats to the player.
The shark is the main threat in Raft, if you enter the water it will attempt to attack the player. The player will be incapacitated after 3 bites from the shark, or 4 if playing on easy. The shark will attempt to attack and destroy the foundation of your raft (including collection nets). The shark will prioritize the outer edges of the player's raft, but can also attack pieces on the inside of the raft. Anything built upon a piece of foundation that gets destroyed by the shark is lost forever. The shark can however be killed. It takes 30 hits with a wooden spear to kill the shark, 15 with the metal spear, and 10 stone arrows. When the shark attacks a part of your raft, 4 hits from a wooden spear will make him flee, while 2 hits from a metal spear or stone arrow will do the same. Upon death, the player can stab the shark with a spear to harvest 4 raw shark meat and 1 shark head. The shark's body will begin to sink as soon as it has been fully looted.
The seagull is one of the threats in Raft. The seagull will try to steal your food, whether it is growing on a crop plot or left unattended on a grill. It is possible to kill the seagull with a couple of hits from a wooden spear or stone arrows, or with 1 hit from the metal spear or metal arrows, or simply scare it away by walking near it. While not a direct threat upon your health bar, seagull can be a nuisance to the player, especially if the player is trying to gather food. Seagulls, unlike everything else on this list, can also be seen as a resource, as after placing down Birds Nests, the seagull may land and lay eggs which can be used for a food source. Upon death, the player can pick up the seagull corpse to harvest 6 feathers and 2 raw drumsticks.
The hunger bar is displayed on the bottom left side of the screen, below the thirst bar and above the health bar. Eating food restores the hunger bar. At low hunger (indicated by the last bit of the hunger bar) the player will slow down, the screen will become disoriented and the edges of the screen will darken, and an audio cue will play where the player can hear their stomach rumble. At this stage, players can no longer regenerate health. Eating food at lower hunger will satisfy the player more. Certain stews from the Cooking Pot are able to grant a player a boost in your hunger bar, some going above the maximum, extending the hunger bar out further than the thirst bar. If the hunger bar becomes completely drained, the player will slowly start to lose health.
Thirst is a mechanic in Raft. The thirst bar is displayed on the bottom left side of the screen, above the hunger bar. Drinking fresh water restores the thirst bar, as does eating any sort of fruit. Be careful not to drink seawater or eat raw fish, as that will cause your thirst bar to deplete. At low thirst (indicated by the last bit of the thirst bar) the player will slow down, the screen will become disoriented and the edges of the screen will darken, and an audio queue will play where the player will start coughing. At this stage, players can no longer regenerate health. Drinking fresh water while thirstier will restore a slightly larger percentage of your thirst bar. If the thirst bar becomes completely drained, the player will slowly start to lose health.
Fatigue is one of the mechanics in Raft that can result in player death. When diving in the water, the player will start to lose oxygen. If your oxygen counter is entirely empty, you will slowly drain player Health. Resurfacing will rapidly refill the fatigue gauge.
The Screecher is a very large condor-like bird that only lives on very large islands post update 7. This giant bird is red/black in color and easily 5x the size of a seagull. This bird does attack you by dropping large boulders onto your head from the sky. The Screecher may be killed by shooting it with approximately 15 stone arrows or 8 metal arrows. Be aware that he flies very fast and may be hard to hit if you are just beginning. A popular tactic is to watch the sky for the Screecher to fly nearby, notice you, and fly to certain pre-set locations on the ground to pull up a rock. This will keep him on the ground not moving for close to 10 seconds, making it a perfect time to shoot him. You may also avoid the stones by simply dodging them, or hiding under any sort of overhang, be it an island cave, a rock overhang, or even being on your raft and underneath an elevated floor. The Screecher drops feathers, drumsticks, and his head which can be worn on your head or mounted on a trophy board.
The poisonous pufferfish is a small yellow fish that only lives underwater at certain large islands post update 7. The pufferfish will always be guarding a nearby Silver Algae. The pufferfish does attack by charging you and when it is close to you (spear stabbing distance) it will explode into a large cloud of poison gas, causing rapid damage to the player. The best way to deal with the pufferfish is the bow and arrow. He may be killed with 6 stone arrow hits, or 3 metal arrows. Once defeated you may wish to collect your arrows from the corpse before looting, as you will not get your arrows back when looting its body. When looted however, you will receive 1 pufferfish head. 2 heads are used in the Head Broth stew with the Cooking Pot.
The Warthog only lives on very large islands. When looted it drops 1 warthog head and Leather.